Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for December, 2008

In honor of the season, Peeling Back the Bark would like to feature a small selection of just a few of the holiday cards and greetings found in various Forest History Society archival collections.  The following selected materials represent just a fraction of the many collections available in the FHS Archives.  Below each image can be found some brief caption information and the collection name.  Click on any of the images to view a larger version.  Happy holidays!

Smokey card

Smokey Bear Christmas card, from Rudolph Wendelin Papers.

(more…)

Read Full Post »

Recently, Eben came across a story about how Theodore Roosevelt refused to allow a Christmas tree in the White House because of “environmental concerns.”  A bit of research kept turning up variations on the story about the ban and how his son Archie smuggled one in against his father’s wishes, which provoked an angry reaction.  Some versions of the story include dialogue between father and son, and some have the children involving Gifford Pinchot, the federal chief of forestry, to defend their actions.  The incident is even the subject of a children’s book by Gary Hines which, though historical fiction, is no farther from (or closer to) the truth than the historical record as it now exists.

While the Roosevelts’ lack of a tree was not a complete break in tradition — a holiday tree in the White House did not become established annual practice until the 1920s — it was still a notable exclusion.  Prior to Roosevelt, Christmas trees were a fairly rare occurrence in the White House.  Legend has it that the fifteenth president, James Buchanan, had the first tree, but even that is disputed, with some sources saying Franklin Pierce had the first one in 1853.  (Keep in mind that as late as the 1840s, most Americans viewed Christmas trees as pagan symbols; the day itself was treated with great solemnity.)

Though German immigrants introduced the tradition to America in the 1700s, the Christmas tree only caught on here in the mid-nineteenth century after Queen Victoria popularized the practice in England in the 1840s.  Nevertheless, nineteenth-century American households typically still didn’t put one up unless there were young children in the house; they placed the presents under or even on the tree for the tykes.  Presidents Grant and Cleveland both had Christmas trees in the White House only because they had young children, while presidents without young children had no tree.  Interestingly, on their website, the White House Historical Association claims Benjamin Harrison had the first recorded Christmas tree in 1889 but makes no mention of any before then.

Regardless of its origins, by Roosevelt’s time, a growing opposition to Christmas trees was reaching its peak.  Many among the general public opposed cutting trees for the holiday because of the injurious impact on forests, the destructive methods used to harvest them, or the overall perceived wastefulness of the practice.  The U.S. Forest Service Newsclipping Files in the FHS Archives contain numerous newspaper editorials from around the turn of the century strongly challenging the practice.  The Hartford Courant in 1902 commented that “the green has become a nuisance, there is so much of it.  Everything from a church to a saloon has to be decorated.  The result is that the woods are being stripped and an altogether endless sacrifice is going on, not in obedience to any real need but just to meet the calls of an absurd fad.”  In what sounds like the debates over natural vs. artificial trees today, others called for artificial substitutes such as wire Christmas trees:

1899 newspaper editorial

(from Minneapolis Times, January 6, 1899)

President Roosevelt himself was on record as opposing destructive lumbering practices, though he doesn’t appear to have singled out the practice of harvesting Christmas trees.  (It is worth noting that Chief Forester Pinchot actually saw nothing wrong with the practice, and by 1907 was even urging the creation of businesses specifically for growing them.)  A few contemporary newspaper articles claim that family tradition held that the Roosevelts never had one.  Undeterred, each year the press enjoyed speculating about whether the family would have a tree.  It was expected that Roosevelt — the father of five children — would have a tree in the White House.  What happened in 1902 made the news, however, and soon passed into legend.

This much we know for certain: in 1901, the Roosevelt children enjoyed a tree at their cousin’s house but not in their own home.  In 1902, Roosevelt’s eight-year-old son Archie stashed some sort of tree in a closet, and one of the electricians rigged up tree lights for it.  Archie decorated it with gifts for each family member and even the family pets.  On Christmas day he surprised his parents and siblings with the tree and presents.  Roosevelt, in a letter written the next day, discussed the tree but did not offer a reaction to it.

Archie Roosevelt -- The Child, The Myth, The Legend!

Archie Roosevelt – The Child, The Myth, The Legend!

It is not clear why Roosevelt didn’t want a tree in the White House.  Many print and internet sources claim it was because of concern over the negative impacts of Christmas tree cutting on America’s forests.  But there seems to be no historical record of Roosevelt publicly addressing this issue.  Other contemporary reports claim that Mrs. Roosevelt preferred to celebrate as simply as possible, implying that trees would only add to the overcrowded house. I’ve gone through many TR and Alice Longworth (TR’s eldest child) biographies and memoirs; the Washington Post and New York Times from that era; and numerous histories of the White House.  I have yet to find a mention of Archie Roosevelt and the secret Christmas tree beyond that one letter written the day after Christmas 1902.  Incidentally, newspaper articles from 1903 to 1908 mention that there will be no tree that year but speculate about what will happen and if Archie will pull a fast one. Some articles from 1903, 1904, and 1905 claim Archie had a secret tree each of those years, with the writers essentially repeating the events of 1902 as if it just happened for the first time. Oddly, the articles are dated December 24th or even the 25th.

The myth surrounding Archie’s tree seems to have started with a description of the event in a Ladies Home Journal article from December 1903 by Robert Lincoln O’Brien, former executive clerk at the White House.  In his account of the events of Christmas 1902, O’Brien claims that Quentin’s nurse suggested enlisting the household electrician to rig the lights. He also recounts the unveiling of the tree, quoting Archie as saying, “Just look here for a minute. I want you to glance into this old closet,” before pressing a button to turn on the lights and opening the closet door. O’Brien wrote, “All the family were there, as was Quentin’s nurse, but none appeared more astonished than Mr. Roosevelt himself at the sight of this diminutive Christmas tree.”

The myth expanded in a December 1909 article in the Oregonian about the history of Christmas in the White House, in which the motive for banning the Christmas tree is linked to “the wanton destruction of small evergreen trees at Christmas time.” But then, the reader is told, “Mr. [Gifford] Pinchot, the Government’s chief forester, sided with Santa Claus and showed how Christmas tree cutting did the forests good in many places. So the second [w]inter the Roosevelts spent in the White House Old Kris conspired with roguish Archie to give the family a real Christmas tree, whether the nature-loving President liked it or not.” Here, for the first time, Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot is drawn into the drama — and sides with the children by discussing the benefits of selection cutting. O’Brien is vague about who he lectures, but the message gets through to the President and he relents in the face of science.

Fast-forward 80 years, and the story is twisted even further and becomes almost fantasy. In a December 1988 article in The Northern Logger and Timber Processor, Dick O’Donnell mixes fact with fiction and errors (for starters, the story occurs in 1905, and he claims that this incident started the White House Christmas tree tradition) so egregiously that I won’t even bother further deconstructing and critiquing his account. Problems aside, O’Donnell does spin a great yarn. He tells us with a straight face that, in 1905, Archie has the idea for the tree but Quentin is worried by their father’s ban. Archie’s solution is to pay Forester Pinchot a visit and enlist their father’s friend and adviser for help. He not only sides with them, but then he proceeds to teach President Roosevelt about selection cutting, who then calls a press conference to announce a change in forest management policy on federal lands. But perhaps the conversations O’Donnell conjures up between Archie and Quentin, and between Roosevelt and Pinchot, gave Gary Hines the basis for his wonderful children’s book. So it can’t be all bad.

We are trying to answer the following questions: What were the real reasons behind why Roosevelt did not allow a tree in the White House?  What are the facts concerning Archie’s tree (did he do it once or twice?) and the President’s reaction to it?  And how and when did the crux of the current legend — that Roosevelt banned trees from the White house due to environmental concerns — come about?  Did Roosevelt really oppose the Christmas tree due to concern for America’s forests, or is this all just a case of when the legend becomes fact, print the legend?

(This blog posted was updated in 2012.)

Read Full Post »

A key instrument in fighting wildfires is the National Fire Danger Rating System — used to anticipate fires ahead of time by predicting the potential danger for fire in a specific geographic area.  The Forest History Society Library and Archives staff recently processed a collection that provides a history of the Forest Service’s creation of this national system, as well as highlights the intersection of science, engineering, and nature — revealing the multidisciplinary nature of forestry.

This new archival collection spans from the 1910s to the 1970s with a small amount of material from the 1980s through the 2000s.  The earlier material originated with John J. Keetch, fire control scientist at the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station in Asheville, North Carolina.  The more recent papers belong to Dale D. Wade, collection donor and fire researcher, and concern research in prescribed or controlled burning.

While processing the collection, I discovered that the main theme among the materials is the scientific method applied to the prediction of forest fire.  Anxious to save both man hours and money, Forest Service scientists pioneered a nationwide system for predetermining where and when forest fires would occur.  Foresters were then able to use daily predictions to prepare for fire control in advance.

The creation of a national fire danger rating system really began in the 1920s with the research of Harry T. Gisborne, the first U.S. Forest Service scientist to focus on estimating the probability of forest fire occurrence before a blaze ever began.

Gisborne

Gisborne uses an early fire danger meter to predict forest fire activity in Kaniksu National Forest in 1937.

Gisborne engineered a simple slide rule–like device known as the Fire Danger Meter that foresters could carry with them in the field.  The meter made fire prediction easy and accessible, with consistent results.

The idea of the Fire Danger Meter spread like wildfire (groan) during the 1940s and 1950s.  Foresters and fire researchers across the U.S. created regional variations of Gisborne’s danger meter, adapted according to local weather, temperature, wind and water, soil chemistry, leaf litter, tree type—all the region-specific variables that factor into the likelihood of forest fire.  By 1954 at least eight distinct meter types were in use across the country.

Fire Danger Meter 8-W

Forest Fire Danger Meter type 8-W, created in January 1954.

At the recommendation of the Forest Service’s Washington Office, Division of Fire Research, a team of fire researchers and fire control officers from all regions of the United States began to develop a unified system in 1958, which was soon dubbed the National Fire Danger Rating System.  The research team worked toward a set of variables that could be used to predict fire danger regardless of geographic location.

John J. Keetch, whose papers make up the bulk of the National Fire Danger Rating System Collection, led this team of fire researchers and fire control officers in creating the basic structure of a four-phase fire-danger rating system.  The first phase of the rating system completed, the Spread Phase, provided indexes for predicting the relative forward spread of wildfires.  Keetch later traveled from region to region collecting feedback and criticism from those using the preliminary version of the unified rating system.

The materials in this collection provide the perspective of one fire control scientist on the process by which the unified rating system was conceived, tested, improved, and subsequently made operational in 1972.  The collection in its entirety also provides an excellent record of the evolution of fire prediction—a process at one time effectively done using rotating cardboard discs that is today done using a set of detailed computer programs.

To read a detailed inventory of the National Fire Danger Rating System collection, please visit our online finding aid — the first published with our new and improved design!

Read Full Post »

The Forest History Society has appeared twice in the news recently! Staff historian Jamie Lewis was interviewed for a story about the drop in the number of visitors to national forests on an annual basis written by Associated Press reporter Jeff Barnard. “National Forest visitors down, no one knows why” appeared in newspapers around the country and online on November 29. Barnard, the 2006 Collier Award recipient, also spoke with FHS President Steve Anderson and Librarian Cheryl Oakes for background material for his article. This is the second time Jamie has been interviewed for an article on the Forest Service; the first was to comment on the resignation of former FS chief Dale Bosworth in January 2007.

FHS and its publication, Forest History Today, are mentioned in the University of St. Thomas (MN) “Bulletin News.” Recent contributor Mark Neuzil’s article was the focus of a short piece dated December 2:

Dr. Mark Neuzil, College of Arts and Sciences (Communication and Journalism Department), is the author of an article, “The Nature of Media Coverage: Two Minnesota Fires,” published in the fall 2008 issue of Forest History Today, a publication of the Forest History Society. The article examines the media coverage of the Great Hinckley Fire of 1894 and the Ham Lake Boundary Waters fire of 2007.

You can get immediate notification when the Forest History Society appears in a news article by signing up for a news alert through Google, Yahoo, or another news site.

Read Full Post »

On this day in 1874, Raphael Zon was born in Simbirsk, Russia.  From Russian radical to New World immigrant, Zon achieved national and international influence as a forest researcher.  Gifford Pinchot even proclaimed, “Mr. Zon is my old and valued friend. . . There is no higher authority in forestry in America.”

In Simbirsk, Zon studied at the classical gymnasium.  At this school, Alexander Kerensky’s father acted as director and Lenin was an older classmate.  Later, Zon pursued studies in medical and natural sciences at the University of Kazan, graduating with a bachelor’s degree in comparative embryology.

In his early life, Zon had a history of political agitation and subsequent imprisonment in his native land.  While a student, Zon engaged in political activity, especially pressing for representative government in Russia, for which he was periodically arrested.  Then briefly assigned to the international zoological station in Naples, he was investigated for helping to form the first trade union at Kazan in 1894.  With the help of future Duma leader Alexis Aladin, Zon escaped his 11-year sentence of confinement.

Inscribed: To Henry Schmitz*, May the School under your leadership grow and prosper. Raphael Zon, January 8, 1926.

Fleeing westward, Zon studied natural sciences, political economy, and philosophy at universities in Belgium and London.  In 1897, Zon arrived in New York City with a mere fifteen cents to his name.  Zon soon left his temporary job at a drugstore for Ithaca, New York, where he enrolled in the nascent New York State College of Forestry at Cornell University.  Studying under Bernhard E. Fernow and Filibert Roth, Zon earned his degree of forest engineer in 1901, becoming a member of the school’s first graduating class.

On July 1, 1901, Zon entered the U. S. Forest Service as a student assistant assigned to forest investigations.  Six years later, he was promoted to Chief of the Office of Silvics (later Forest Investigations).  Zon made a persuasive and persistent case for separating research work from forest administration, achieved in 1915 with the establishment of the Branch of Research.  Zon’s advocacy of research led to his organization of the first Federal Forest Experiment Stations and the Forest Products Laboratory.  In order to advance the war effort, Woodrow Wilson appointed Zon to the National Research Council to study forest problems during World War I.  In 1923, Zon left Washington, D.C., to accept appointment as director of the Lake States Forest Experiment Station at St. Paul, Minnesota, in 1923.  In this position, Zon served with distinction until his retirement in 1944.

Presenting the inaugural Gifford Pinchot Medal to Raphael Zon, George L. Drake lauded Zon’s role in American forestry:

Throughout his official career, Raphael Zon exercised a national influence on the development of forest research not surpassed by any other American forester.

(more…)

Read Full Post »

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 52 other followers